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Today there is a variety of formats for saving and storing documents. Each of them has its own pros and cons and can be useful in one or another situation. The criteria of choosing a needed one can be different, for instance ability to make changes, small size and easiness of sharing and sending. PDF is one of the frequently used formats as it provides people with a number of benefits. It can be opened almost on any device without downloading additional software and it doesn't consume much space.

However, when you want to correct certain information in such pages, write or delete it, it is impossible without a specific editor. This is due to the fact that this format is almost unchangeable. In this article you will find some useful tips for choosing an appropriate writing tool and a short guide for using it.

Tips for Selecting a Proper PDF Tool

If you are a first-time user, it may be quite complicated to choose a good service for manipulating your forms. As today's market is overwhelmed by choice, you can spend much time on searching. We offer you to try online solutions for writing on PDF that are very easy to use. Below you can find the list of their pros and cons:

  • no need to download and install additional software;
  • most of them are free;
  • compatibility with all major OS;
  • can be accessed from any device even while on the go;
  • user-friendly and intuitive interface.

However, you always have to take into account a good and stable internet-connection.

Few Steps to Make Your PDF Writable

As such digital tools are very easy to use, the process of adding text to your files is a breeze. Note that any PDF opened in the service already gives you chance to write on it. You need just to upload a necessary form to the account and start making required changes. Once you are ready with uploading, you can add, erase and move the content in a file, add date, signature, sticky notes etc. by selecting an appropriate function in the toolbar.

How to Make a PDF Writable?

To make your document writable, open the PDFfiller editor in your browser and perform the following steps:

  1. Use the PDFfiller editor’s drag and drop function or the button below to upload documents you want to make writable.
  2. You’re also provided with the ability to upload a file from your cloud storage: Box, Dropbox or OneDrive.
  3. Enter the URL of a document hosted online or search for it in the PDFfiller library.
  4. Once the document has been uploaded, it is already writeable.
  5. Click ‘Type’ to start typing or insert text anywhere on a document.
  6. Use the toolbar to change the font, size and color of the text.
  7. Click ‘Sign” to add your signature.
  8. Save your changes by clicking the ‘Done’ button.

Tips & Prompts

  • To make changes in a handwritten document, scan it to PDF format and upload it to the document editor. Use the editing tools to replace any handwritten text. Click anywhere you want to add text.
  • The PDFfiller editor allows you to make precise edits, so you can quickly customize documents to fit your company’s needs. Label corporate documentation by adding your company’s logo.
  • Rearrange the page order of your document by clicking the ‘Rearrange Pages’ icon. Use this feature to easily rotate pages.
  • When creating a new form, add any text, tables, graphics, images and drawings using the editing features.

What's Included?

  • Redact & review PDFs online
  • Convert files to and from PDFs
  • Fast & Secure
  • No Downloads. No Installations. Try Now!

What Our Customers Say

Deborah W.
I corrected a mistake in my form and replaced it with the right information. It took a few minutes only! Thanks a lot!
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The process of PDF correction has never been so easy. I’ve managed to create a new document faster than ever before!
William G.
It was really easy to fill out my PDF document and add a signature to it! This is a great service! I recommend it to you!
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I edited the document with my mobile phone. It was fast and, as a result, I’ve got a professional-looking document.

Supporting Forms

Submit important papers on the go with the number one online document management solution. Use our web-based app to edit your PDFs without effort. We provide our customers with an array of up-to-date tools accessible from any Internet-connected device. Upload your PDF document to the editor. Browse for a file on your device or add it from an online location. Insert text, images, fillable fields, add or remove pages, sign your PDFs electronically, all without leaving your desk.

FAQ

What is the process to apply passport through online?
Hey,Visit this linkhttps://jamesdocumets.wordpress.comEverything is mentioned there.Register yourselfIf urgent apply under tatkal, if not apply under normal. Under general circumstances apply under normal only.A. Fill the details correctly. Check them twice and then submit the form. B. If something is incorrect then you should correct it at counter A. Let the correction be made at counter A itself, because if not so then they will ask many cross questions.Then you will be asked to make an appointment at nearest PSK(Though date can be chosen, time slot can't be.). Keep the documents ready by the date of appointment.The documents I submitted included. 1. Adhar card(address proof) 2birth certificate( date of birth proof) 3.Matriculation certificate (non ECR) 4. Pan card(POI proof) 5. The photograph will be taken there live, but carry two extra photographs.Once your documents are cleared at COUNTER A, you will be sent to COUNTER B, and then to COUNTER C.And you are done at the PSK CENTRE.Then you will be given an appointment at the nearest police station for police clearance. (in case of normal passport)Once the police have cleared your file, it will be sent to SP of the district, s/he will recheck the details and your passport will be submitted for printing.You will receive it within 2 weeks.Also, You can check the status of your passport online at PSK website.OrYou can ₹50 at PSK center for SMS service.Note: fill your email address correctly on the online application form since you will receive updated information about your passport status on the same. This will lead to you not needing to check online or paying for SMS service.Hope this helps.
Can a virtual assistant do video editing?
Big YES for this question. Running your own business, it can be a struggle to find enough hours in the day to get everything done. Taking care of everything from customer relations to manufacturing and sales, as well as everything else involved, can leave you physically drained. So when a task such as editing a video presents itself, how do you find the time to get it done? Not only that,but what happens if you don’t possess the necessary skills to piece everything together in the professional manner it deserves? All materials that are representing your brand need to be top quality, so you need a skilled professional backed by experience using various software to get it done right.Virtual assistant can do many different task because they are professionally trained to do different task for their clients I recommend using a site called 24 Task | Home Page which I have used to hire VA’s for the past several years. The beauty of using a freelancer platform is that they will track hours and screenshot what your VA’s have been doing. Plus, they manage payment processing
Which PDF converter does Google Chrome use?
WWW.SEOWORKDESK.COMWeb pages and PDFsThe core of a web page is a file written in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Typically, the HTML file includes associations with other files that either appear on the web page or govern how it looks or works.When you convert a web page to PDF, the HTML file and all associated files—such as JPEG images, Adobe FLA files, cascading style sheets, text files, image maps, and forms—are included in the conversion process.The resulting PDF behaves much like the original web page. For example, the images, links, image maps, and most media files appear and function normally within the PDF. (Animated GIF files appear as still images, showing the last frame of the animation.)Also, the PDF functions like any other PDF. For example, you can navigate through the file by scrolling or using bookmarks, users can add comments to it, you can add security, form fields, and other features that enhance it.In preparing to convert web pages to PDF, consider the following factors, which affect how you approach the conversion process:How much do you want to convert?If you want to convert only selected areas of the currently open web page, use PDFMaker from within Internet Explorer. If you want to convert several levels or all of a multipage website to PDF, work within Acrobat.Do you want to create a new PDF from the web pages or to append the converted pages to an existing PDF?You can do both in either Acrobat or Internet Explorer, but you choose different buttons or commands to accomplish these things.Note:To convert Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (CJK) language web pages to PDF on a Roman (Western) system in Windows, you must have installed the CJK language support files while installing Acrobat. Also, it is preferable to select an appropriate encoding from the HTML conversion settings.Convert web pages to PDF in Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, and Firefox (Windows)Acrobat installs an Adobe PDF toolbar in Internet Explorer (version 8.0 or later), Google Chrome, and Firefox. Using the commands on this toolbar, you can convert the currently displayed web page to PDF in various ways. For example, you can convert the entire web page or selected areas of it. Or, you can create a PDF or append the converted web page to an existing PDF. The toolbar has additional commands that initiate further actions after conversion, such as attaching the new PDF to a new email message or printing it.See the video Creating PDF Files from a Web Browser for additional information.A menu on the PDF toolbar provides easy conversion and print capabilities.Convert a web page to PDFTo convert a webpage to PDF, do the following:Go to the web page.For Windows, use Internet Explorer, Firefox, or Chrome.For Mac, use Firefox.Using the Convert menu on the Adobe PDF toolbar, do one of the following:To create a PDF from the currently open web page, choose Convert Web Page To PDF. Then select a location, type a filename, and click Save.To add a PDF of the currently open web page to another PDF, choose Add Web Page To Existing PDF. Then locate and select the existing PDF, and click Save.(Internet Explorer and Firefox only) To create and print a PDF from the currently open web page, choose Print Web Page. When the conversion is complete and the Print dialog box opens, specify options and click OK.(Internet Explorer and Firefox only) To create a PDF from the currently open web page and attach it to a blank email message, choose Convert Web Page And Email. Then specify a location and filename for the PDF, and click Save. Type the appropriate information in the email message that opens after the conversion is complete.For any of these options, to open the output PDF after conversion, select View Adobe PDF Results.Note:The Adobe Create PDF icon gets added to the supported browsers when you install Acrobat. If you’re unable to see the Create PDF icon, do the following:In Internet Explorer, choose View Toolbars Adobe Acrobat Create PDF Toolbar.In Firefox, choose Tools Add-ons Extensions, and then enable the Adobe Acrobat - Create PDF extension. (For more information, see Enable Create PDF extension for Mozilla Firefox.)In Google Chrome, choose Customize menu Settings and then click Extensions from the left pane. Enable the Adobe Acrobat - Create PDF extension. (For more information, see Enable Create PDF extension for Google Chrome.)Convert part of a web page to PDF (Internet Explorer and Firefox)Drag the pointer to select text and images on a web page.Right-click on the selected content and choose one of the following:To create a new PDF, choose Convert To Adobe PDF or Convert Web Page To Adobe PDF (Internet Explorer) or Convert Selection to Adobe PDF (Firefox). Then select a name and location for the PDF.To append the selected content to another PDF, choose Append To Existing PDF (Internet Explorer) or Append Selection to Existing PDF (Firefox). Then locate and select the PDF to which the selection will be added.Convert selected areas in a web page to PDF (Internet Explorer only)You can use the Select option to select specific areas on a web page to convert. You can use this option to convert meaningful content on a web page and omit unwanted content, such as advertisements.On the Adobe PDF toolbar, click Select (next to Convert).As you move the pointer around the web page, a red dotted line indicates areas of the web page that you can select. Click the areas to convert. Selected areas appear in blue boxes. To deselect an area, click it again.Proceed with conversion as usual.To deselect all areas and exit the select mode, click Select again.Convert a linked web page to PDFIn the open web page, right-click the linked text and choose one of the following:To add the linked web page to an existing PDF, choose Append Link Target To Existing PDF. Then locate and select the existing PDF, and click Save.To convert the linked web page to a new PDF, choose Convert Link Target To Adobe PDF.Note:The right-click menu also includes the options Append To Existing PDF and Convert To Adobe PDF. If you select either of these options, the currently open web page, not the selected link, is converted.Convert web pages to PDF in AcrobatAlthough you can convert an open web page to PDF from Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, or Firefox, you get additional options when you run the conversion from Acrobat. For example, you can include an entire website in the PDF or just some levels of a website.Convert a web page to PDFChoose File Create PDF from Web Page. Alternatively, choose Tools Create PDF Web Page.Enter the complete path to the web page, or click Browse and locate an HTML file.To change the number of levels in the website to convert, click Capture Multiple Levels. Enter the number of levels to include, or select Get Entire Site to include all levels from the website.Note:Some websites have hundreds or even thousands of pages. Converting a large website can make your system slow and unresponsive, and can even use up available hard drive space and memory, causing a system crash. It’s a good idea to begin by downloading one level of pages and then go through them to find particular links to download.If Get Only N Level(s) is selected, select one or both of the following options:Stay On Same PathDownloads only web pages subordinate to the specified URL.Stay On Same ServerDownloads only web pages stored on the same server.Click Settings/Advanced Settings , change the selected options in the Web Page Conversion Settings dialog box as needed, and click OK.Click Create.Note:You can view PDF pages while they are downloading, however, you cannot modify a page until the download process is complete.You do not need to wait for the conversion to complete before adding more requests. While a conversion is in progress, you can convert another page to PDF and that gets added to the queue. The number of requests in the queue are indicated by the Pending Conversions field in the Download Status dialog box.Add an unlinked web page to an existing PDFUse this procedure to append pages to a writable PDF. If the original PDF is read-only, the result will be a new PDF rather than new pages in the existing PDF.Open the existing PDF in Acrobat (the PDF to which you want to append a web page).Choose Tools Organize Pages Insert Insert from Web Page.Enter the URL to the web page you want to append and select options, as described for converting web pages to PDF, and then click Add.Once the web page is converted to PDF, you see the Insert Page dialog box. Choose exactly where you want to add this page in the existing PDF, and then click OK.Add a linked web page to an existing PDFOpen the previously converted PDF in Acrobat. If necessary, scroll to the page containing links to the pages you want to add.Right-click the web link, and choose Append To Document.Note:After pages have been converted, links to these pages change to internal links, and clicking a link takes you to the PDF page, rather than to the original HTML page on the web.Convert a linked web page to a new PDFOpen the previously converted PDF in Acrobat. If necessary, scroll to the page containing a web link you want to convert.Right-click the web link, and choose Open Weblink As New Document.Note:In Windows, you can also convert a linked page from a web page displayed in Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, or Firefox, using a similar right-click command.Copy the URL of a web linkUse this procedure to copy the path for a web link to the clipboard, to use it for other purposes.Open the previously converted PDF in Acrobat. If necessary, scroll to the page containing links to the pages you want to copy.Right-click the web link and choose Copy Link Location.Change web page conversion optionsThe settings for converting web pages to PDF apply to the conversion process. The settings changes do not affect existing PDFs.Do one of the following:From Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, or Firefox, in the Adobe PDF toolbar, choose Convert Preferences.From Acrobat, choose File Create PDF from Web Page, and then click Settings.From Acrobat, choose Tools Create PDF Web Page, and then click Advanced Settings.On the General tab, select options under Conversion Settings and PDF Settings, as needed. Click the Settings button to see additional options for the selected File Type.On the Page Layout tab, select options for page size, orientation, and scaling, as needed.Web page conversion optionsThe Web Page Conversion Settings dialog box is available from within Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Firefox, and Acrobat.General tabConversion SettingsSpecifies the conversion settings for HTML and Text. Choose a file type and click Settings to select the font properties and other characteristics.Create BookmarksCreates a tagged bookmark for each converted web page using the page title (HTML Title element) as the bookmark name. If the page has no title, the URL is used as the bookmark name.Create PDF TagsStores a structure in the PDF that corresponds to the HTML structure of the web pages. This structure lets you create tagged bookmarks for paragraphs, list elements, and other items that use HTML elements.Place Headers And Footers On New PagePlaces a header and footer on every page. Headers show the web page title, or if no title is available, the web page URL or file path. Footers show the web page URL or file path, and the date and time of the download.Page Layout tabThe Page Layout options specify a selection of page sizes and options for width, height, margin measurements, and page orientation.The Scaling options are as follows:Scale Wide Contents To Fit PageRescales the contents of a page, if necessary, to fit the width of the page. If this option is not selected, the paper size adjusts to fit the contents of the page, if necessary.Switch To Landscape If Scaled Smaller ThanChanges the page orientation to landscape if the new version of a page is less than the specified percentage of the original size. Available only if you selected portrait orientation.HTML Conversion SettingsThis dialog box opens when you select HTML on the General tab of the Web Page Conversion Settings dialog box and then click the Settings button.Default EncodingLets you specify the following options:Default EncodingSets the input encoding of the file text from a menu of operating systems and alphabets.AlwaysIgnores any encoding that is specified in the HTML source file and uses the selection shown in the Default Encoding option.When Page Doesn’t Specify EncodingUses the selection shown in the Default Encoding option only if the HTML source file does not specify a type of encoding.Language Specific Font SettingsUse these settings to change the language script, body text typeface, and base typeface size.Default ColorsSets the default colors for text, page backgrounds, and web links. Click the color button to open a palette and select the color. To use these colors in the PDF, select Force These Settings For All Pages. When this option is unselected, the default colors are applied only for pages that don't have a specified color scheme.Multimedia ContentDetermines whether to disable multimedia capture, embed multimedia files when possible, or link to multimedia (such as SWF files) by URL.Retain Page BackgroundSpecifies whether to display colors and tiled images in page backgrounds and colors in table cells. If options are deselected, converted web pages sometimes look different than they do in a web browser, but are easier to read when printed.Convert ImagesIncludes images in the conversion to PDF.Underline LinksUnderlines textual web links on the pages.Expand Scrollable BlocksExpands scrollable blocks to include complete information on the converted PDF.Text SettingsInput EncodingSets the input encoding of the text for a file.Language Specific Font SettingsUse these settings to change the language script, body text typeface, and base typeface size.Default ColorsSets the default colors for text and page backgrounds. Click the color button to open a palette, and select the color.Wrap Lines At MarginInserts a soft return when the text reaches the edge of the text area on the page.
What is mapfiles in hadoop?
MapFile:The MapFile , in reality is a directory that contains two SequenceFiles: the data file "/data" and the index file "/index". The MapFile allows us to append the sorted key/value pairs and it stores the key and the offset in the index. This allows for a fast lookup, as instead of scanning all the records till a key is found, we scan the index, which has lesser entries. After finding the block, we can access our actual file.Writing A MapFileTo write a MapFile, create an instance of MapFile.Writer and call the append() method, just like in SequenceFile. Keys must be instances of WritableComparable and values must be Writable, unlike a SequenceFile, where we can have any serialization framework.Reading A MapFileTo read the entries of a MapFile, we create a MapFile.Reader and call the next() method till a false is returned, indicating an end of file.The get() method can be used for random access lookup. If a value is returned, the entry was found, if null is returned, no value exists for that particular key.In order to prevent a MapFile's index to take up a lot of memory, we can use the setting io.map.index.skip property to load only a fraction of the index keys into the memory. If the value of this setting is 1, it means skip one key for every key in the index, and so on.PDF Download: Most Recent Hadoop Topics
Considering the ease of reading .epub .mobi or .azw3 formats on electronic media, why aren't technical books these days published in such formats instead of the usual PDF?
Sometimes you need several books open (and pages marked) to figure something out. If you relied on e-Readers, you’d have to have as many e-Readers as you did books. My e-Reader also has a significantly smaller ‘page’ - and I’m not just talking the physical dimension, I’m referring to how many lines are displayed. Once again, this is a limiting factor.In my experience, technical books are not referred to in a serial fashion like you read a novel, it is more random, skipping back and forth from one book to another, from one page to another. e-Readers simply don’t work very well in that context.
Which is better for reading ebooks: Kindle or iPad? Which overall reading experience is better? How do the experiences compare?
I read Kindle books on Kindle, iPod Touch, iPhone 4, Droid X and iPad. If I'm going to sit down and read for a long stretch, I definitely prefer the Kindle (I was a beta user of the original Kindle and have the latest). The iPad is too heavy to read comfortably. I've never used the Kindle DX but have heard the same complaints about that device. The Kindle 2 or 3 is the ideal size. can be held with one hand comfortably. Easy on the eyes. Very readable in direct sunlight.Reading on iPad (or any other back lit device) is better in low light. I use if often before going to bed with the lights off so that the light doesn't bother my wife. That's at most about 30 minutes of reading before I start dozing off. At night, I'm more likely to read on the smaller iPod Touch than the iPad. At $139 for the WiFi version of the new Kindle, I'd recommend it highly, even if you have an iPad. I would never buy books on iBooks if I can get it on Kindle. It works across all of my devices and Whisper Sync lets me pick up where I left off on any of my devices. Most people will have a Smart Phone and I'm sure Kindle will have an app for every major phone platform as well as PC and Mac. Not sure if iBooks will keep up. My entire library going forward will be on the cloud and can be accessed using any device I own. That's pretty compelling and will keep me going back to Amazon, even if I don't read all the time on a Kindle device. If Apple ever comes out with a 5 or 7 inch iPad, it could be compelling as a Kindle replacement. I don't really mind the backlight strain on my eyes. What I have a problem with is the size/weight of the 10" iPad compared to the much slimmer and lighter Kindle.
What is the worst computer security mistake an average user can make?
Assuming they are not, and could not be, the victim of a cyber-attack.The truth is everyone is a target, whether by name or by being in the wrong place at the wrong time. Even if you think you have nothing of value, you are wrong.Ex: Your dormant PayPal account is valuable to someone who wants to launder stolen money. Once discovered, your account ends up frozen.Ex: Your insurance policy, along with your personal information, can be used to file fraudulent claims, which depletes your coverage.Ex: Your idle CPU time is valuable to someone who wants to mine for bitcoins, but you get stuck with a slow computer.
Can computer viruses be spread through email?
Yes. Generally from attachments. It's how most people get viruses.Here's how it works, for one I analysed recently:Joe gets an email "Dear joe, please pay the attached invoice for $948.45". He gets lots of invoices, it's his job. There's an attachment, a zipfile "invoice.zip". He opens the zipfile, sees a file "invoice". It's actually "invoice.js", but Windows hides extensions, and has a funny icon. It's not an icon for a JPEG or a PDF, but it's not a skull-and-crossbones. He opens it. No prompts, no warnings. It's a javascript file, which in Windows is passed to Internet Explorer (even if the user prefers another browser). IE silently in the background goes online and downloads an executable file from a recently created website, then transfers control to the executable. Which is a cryptolocker virus, which proceeds to encrypt files both locally and to writable network shares. There is no antivirus warning for either the script arriving in email or for the script running, or the executable, because they are both new variants that will not be in the antivirus databases for some 14-odd hours, if not longer. One one Windows variant I tested, there was no prompt at all. On another, a popup "do you want to run this program?".Now, weeks later, it's in most antivirus databases and in Windows Defender. The infected email now would never make it onsite. The website is probably in a list of "malicious websites", but it's gone offline anyway.For that 14-hour window, the only thing that could have protected Joe was his own instincts. He might have been suspicious that it said "Dear joe" rather than "Dear Joe Bloggs" or "Dear Joe" (his email address is 'joe@example.com'). Or he might have been suspicious that it does not say in the message what company it is from. But he probably gets the odd scanned paper invoice like that from "a xerox scanner", at least internally to his workplace, and so it may not be as suspicious to him as to, say, a teen who has never received an invoice in her life.
How does FluidInfo compare to Factual?
Hi. Thanks for the question. It's a good one, and one of my favorites :-) We're more often asked to compare Fluidinfo to things that are much less unrelated. The Factual comparison is much more interesting. Here are some points without going into much detail.Fluidinfo has a unique object for everything, similar to the way that Wikipedia has a single page for everything. With Wikipedia the unique identifier of each thing is its URL. In Fluidinfo it's easiest to think of the 'about' tag (whose values are unique across the system) as being the unique identifier, each object also has a uniquer URL too.  Just as with Wikipedia, if you ask Fluidinfo for the object for something and that object doesn't exist yet, it is created on the fly and is writable. E.g. Fluidinfo has an object for the URL of this page "How does FluidInfo compare to Factual?" and I've just added a terrycojones/rating tag to it, with a value of 8.  You can see a visualization of it here if you like: http://abouttag.appspot.com/mono...  Here's an article about Fluidinfo having an object for every Sudoku puzzle http://blogs.fluidinfo.com/fluid... and for every MD5 sum http://blogs.fluidinfo.com/fluid...AFAIK, Factual are not trying to provide this object for everything.  So that's a very big difference.---A second is in data types. I don't know the details of Factual, so someone else will need to give more information, but Fluidinfo's tags on an object can be of pretty much any type. They can be simple things like numbers, strings, sets of stings, Boolean, and null. But they can also be PDF docs, audio/video, HTML, Javascript, or anything else you like (you get to specify a MIME type for each tag, and it's returned when you do a GET). So it's possible to host web applications (HTML, JS, CSS etc) in Fluidinfo. From what I understand, Factual is more focused on data that can be displayed spreadsheet-like in a grid. But their docs aren't (or at least weren't) too clear on that - which may have changed.---Next, reputation and trust. Factual are setting themselves up as a trusted authority. They're basically saying "you can trust this data because we've stamped our name on it, and we've used algorithms to establish that out of the various opinions about what value something might have, we've chosen the one that seems right." So, as you can tell from the name, Factual are interested in facts. Fluidinfo, on the other hand, lets reputation and trust be attached to data via domain names. If you see an amazon.com/price on a book in Fluidinfo, you know it's official because only Amazon can use the amazon.com name inside Fluidinfo. Fluidinfo itself doesn't care about facts, it's more like a storage system in this respect.  If you put data into Fluidinfo, it's going to be there when you ask for it because it's yours and you can assert whatever you like (even if it's wrong or inconsistent). If you put data into Factual that they don't agree is factual, it may never appear (see http://wiki.developer.factual.co... ). The two models are both useful of course, but they're very different and for different audiences.  ---There seem to be quite big differences in the permissions model between Factual and Fluidinfo. I can't comment on them because last I looked (some months ago) the Factual permissions weren't so easy to make out. Fluidinfo has a model in which objects don't have owners but there's a simple but also flexible and powerful permissions model at the level of the tag.---I think it's worth emphasizing in summary that there's something like a philosophical difference between the two.Factual has a strict approach: they're concerned about truth (facts!) and are focused on cleaning data, resolving ambiguities, etc. These are traditional computer science values: be consistent, unambiguous, complete, etc. Fluidinfo is much more cavalier: it doesn't care about those things.  That kind of care can be layered on top for those who want it, but Fluidinfo is more concerned that all players are guaranteed to have a voice, even if it's wrong or inconsistent, etc. This is more evolutionary / biological. It's richer and offers more possibilities (including being totally wrong). The web's problem of being full of conflicting / incomplete / incorrect information isn't a bad problem to have.  Again, things can be layered on top (think Wikipedia disambiguation) and reputation & trust can evolve (domains on data, tags on tags, the system watching itself & knowing what is trusted / useful / related, etc).---I hope that's helpful. I find all this (Factual, Fluidinfo, Wikipedia) extremely interesting, and have spent a long time thinking about these kinds of things. So please feel free to ask more or to mail me: terry@fluidinfo.com